Violations in Arakan

Source from The Sail,

Violations Against Arakenses:
Before the king of Bo-Daw-Pa-Ya occupied the Arakan, the Arakan is separated region and it neither fell into Burma nor British or Bangladesh.
Before Independence, violations against Rohingya in Arakan were mostly in every power transition periods of AD; 957, 1044, 1406, 1544, 1660, 1752, 1775, 1782, 1784, 1785, 1794, 1796, 1798, 1799, 1811, 1930, 1938, 1942….
And after independence, major exoduses into neighbour countries were from years 1949/50, 1967/68, 1978 and 1991 to yet, …
(from The New Fortune news letter)

As a consequence of the invasion in 1784, the Burman King Bodawpaya conquered and incorporated the Arakan region into his kingdom of Ava in central Burma, the Arakanese including both Buddhist-Rakhines and Rohingya-Muslims had been refuged into what is now Bangladesh, which was then controlled by the British. They received assistances under British in that time. Such flow made today found many Arakanese Rakhines and Rohingyas in Bangladesh territory.

In 1942, the Japanese invasion during the British retreat to India, communal violence erupted. Attacks were made against those groups that had benefited from British colonial rule. Burman nationalists attacked Karen and Indian communities, while in Arakan Buddhist Rakhine and Muslim Rohingya villagers attacked one another causing a displacement of Buddhist villagers to the south and Muslims to the north.
In Arakan, the British handed over the power to commissioner U Kyaw Khiang, ruled Martial law. British soldiers left arms reached to the hands of Rakhines and started blood-bathes against Rohingyas. The pogrom was staged by the order of Arakan state Tha-khin leaders and led by commissioner U Kyaw Khine.
Initially, the massacre stated in Chinbili village of Minbya township on 28 March and escapees about 15,000 Rohingyas were slaughtered on their arrival to Thaungyi Nyo. Again, about 10,000 Rohingyas who passed Apawa were also killed in the same way. On1st April, 15,000 Rohingyas were killed in Raichaung and Pankha villages of Myebon. It continued to Kyauknimaw of Rambree but saved in miraculous way. Rohingyas in Kyaukpyu were were given protection by British forces. On 8th April, continuously slaughtered in Kyauktaw, Mrohaung, pauktaw and Rathidaung. End of April, onslaught swept over Rathidaung and Buthidaung and three fourth of Rohingyas were killed. In Akyab, Rohingyas acquired arms and the conditions was both defensive and offensive operation under leader Sultan Mohammad. This campaign caused total 294 Rohingya villages destroyed, 100,000 Rohingyas massacred and some 80,000 Rohingya uprooted to Raungpur refugee camp of Bangladesh.
The region remained under Japanese control until a British offensive drove them out in 1945. Prior to the invasion, the British, seeking to bolster support for their forces, had promised the Muslims of northern Arakan a Muslim National Area, and some of the displaced returned with the British. However, the British government never delivered on its promise to create a Muslim National Area. (from AFK Jilani- The Muslim Massacre of 1942)

Considered illegal Pakistani immigrants: As a result of that, some 13,000 Rohingya living in refugee camps of India and Pakistan whence they had fled during the war, were unable to return; as for those who did manage to return, they were considered illegal Pakistani immigrants. The properties and land of all these refugees have been confiscated. The immigration authorities imposed limitations of movement upon Muslims from the regions of Maungdaw, Buthidaung, and Rathedaung to Akyab [Sittwe]. The Muslims were not resettled in the villages from which they had been driven out in 1942 (with the exception of villages they left in the Maungdaw and Buthidaung regions).
In 1949 under Burma Territorial Force (BTF), organized in1949 to surpress the Rohingyas, most of them are exremist Rakhine community. The measures of BTF period and their brutality still shudders the conscience of every livig Rohingya till today. BTF unleashed a reign of terror in North Arakan under the director of U Kyaw Oo, the firebrand Rakhine Deputy Commissioner of Akyab district, killing hundreds of people and burning several villages, Thousands of Rohingyas were made homeless and nearly 50,000 had fled to the East pakistan. Maung Gri was the first commanding officer in 1950; Capt Saw Hla Aung was replaced and then transferred them to Union Military Police (UMP). There are many caeses of rape on innocent ladies were taken outside of their homes and taken away for some days and returned later. Even elderly women were not left untouched in the villages wher the BTFs and UMPs were moving. (From the Situation of Rohingya from Burma s Independence up to the Present)

1967/68 Ngazinka Operation in Kyauktaw, thousand were slaughtered, women were raped, properties and lands confiscated, destructed villages and ancient religious buildings. Many were escaped to Bangladesh and a few to Akyab, Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Paletwa. (Historian)

In 1978, the government initiated a program called Nagamin (King of Dragons)-a census operation to check identification cards and to take “actions against foreigners who have filtered into the country illegally.” While the program was nationwide in scope, in Arakan it degenerated into abusive attacks on Rohingyas by both the army and local Rakhines.
On Feb 6, the operation introduced firstly in the biggest Rohingya village Sakkipara of Akyab and started mass arrests and killings.
On 11 Feb, hundreds of Rohingyas from Akyab were loaded by ship and sank in Akyab-bay. On March, it reached at Buthidaung and Maungdaw and started rapes, killings, imprisonments.
In Kyauktaw, several ships led by department of immigration landed to load Rohingyas. Rohingyas resisted the immigration authority of Kyauktaw township’s order therefore some de-factor Rakhines collaborated with authorities and caused about hundreds Rohingyas deaths.
By May 1978, over 200,000 Rohingyas took shelter in makeshift camp erected by Bangladesh government. A few went to Malaysia whom continued to reside there with uncertainty.

Pyi Tha Ya Operation in 1991, Rohingya who had fled to Bangladesh were the first to report a dramatic increase in the number of soldiers being posted to northern Arakan state and a consequent upsurge in human rights abuses against Rohingyas.. As a stage of operation, the biggest Rohingya village Sakkipara/Thatkaybyin in Sittwe/Akyab, was demolished.
In May 1991, the first of some 100,000 Rohingya refugees had arrived in Bangladesh and the numbers raised at total 270,00 by March 1992, and increased as total 268,000 in the middle of 1992. Most of them were from Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathidaung and Akyab. Along the operation, hundreds of model village settlement had been located at the lands of Rohingyas in all over Arakan state.
The refugees told of summary executions, rape, and other forms of torture which they had witnessed or personally endured at the hands of the military. In most cases, the abuses took place in the context of forced labour: the Rohingyas were being forced to work as porters, build new army barracks, new roads and bridges, dig fish and prawn ponds, and cut bamboo for the military.

Killings and forms of arbitrary punishment of Rohingyas who found in travelling and others. Regarding this, The following sources were escalated from family members living both in exile and home;
18 Rohingyas from Kyauktaw were arrested in Taungkup-Ann township and beaten to death in 1992. One of the victim’s was Mr.Husein and his brother Mr.hassan now living in Norway.
12 Rohingyas from Maungdaw were arrested in Pann-mraung of Mrauk Oo by military regime-377 and executed in 1993.
12 Rohingyas of Kyauktaw township and two Chins, were arrested by military in frontier area of Namada village and brought to Paletwa township of Chin state in 1994. After an interrogation was made by senior Military Intelligence (MI-10) of Kyauktaw, U Myo Khin, 7 persons were shot dead by Colonel Aung Kyaw Thein in Nonbu village and the rest 7 persons were also shot dead by Sub-Commander in Roukchaung village. The report provided- ‘suspects found in black area were shot to death’.
More than thousand Rohingyas youth in Maungdaw were arrested by military and shot death in 1994/95.
In 1994/95, 11 Muslims of Kyauk-ni-maw were captured in Taungup and sank into the river after tied up and packed by gunny.

The rest of lucky groups who found by police were convicted up to 7 years with hard-work.
In the end of 1997, a group of Rohingyas 7 people from Sittwe/Akyab were arrested in Tandwe township and sentenced 7 years imprisonment under section 5/nya. Some of them were now living in China border after released from prison.
In 2000 June, One of the group was 7 persons including a family with 12yo child and mother were convicted 7 to 22 years jail.
In 2003, 15 Rohingyas from Akyab were arrested in Yangon and sent back to Sittwe/Akyab then sentenced 7 years imprisonment. Some of them were from the above-stated the first group of 7 people sentenced in end of 1997.
On 19 Sept 2008, 136 Rohingyas from Sittwe/Akyab were arrested in Rechanbyin village of Sittwe/Akyab when they are preparing for travelling. They were sent to prison without decision. Among them, 5 men were lifted to Yangon and 7 of their relatives living in Yangon were also detained and sent to Insein Prison. The rest who were in Sittwe/Akyab prison were detained about 6 months according to the state military command commander’s instruction and released by 1 to 3 Lakh Kyats payment as they had not departed from Sittwe area.
On 07 October 2009 in Kyauktaw, the immigration authority detained 30 Rohingya activists for their refusing TRC (Temporary Registration Card) identity.
A group of about 54 Muslims from Kyauknimaw were detained in Kyaukfru Prison since the end of 2009 after a confrontation was occurred between a man who travel to Kyaukfru and Immigration. The result of failing to report on time and expired the 3 days Temporary Travelling Permit (TTP). He was beaten brutally by military so that his relatives confronted with authority. The victim and his family have been escaped after the event but innocent traders and active headmen were arrested by the order of the state’s command commander. Their relatives based in Yangon had tried to rescued them by dealings with high ranking general of Yangon but failed and spent about 2 million Kyats. Finally, they all have been sentenced up to 20 years imprisonment by the court of Kyaukfru at the end of year 2010. (collecting more about this)

In Exile: since September 1992, there have been efforts to repatriate the Rohingya refugees residing in Bangladesh, and in August 1994 UNHCR adopted a program of mass repatriation in which thousands of Rohingyas returned to Burma each week. But, the repatriation program regardless of the situation both in home and exile, was agreed by UNHCR and Bangladeshi government where some selfishness Rohingya leaders also made similar proposal.
Fortunately, such kind proposal of repatriation of the only Rohingyas from neigh-boring countries like Malaysia, Thailand, Bangladesh are going to be removed after repeated failures like before.
And boat people crises have been uploaded as a regional problem for Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Thailand military definds Rohingya boatpeople as a threat to nation security and pushed back to international waters in early 2009, with providing no food and waters after taking off of the engines. The numbers of towed back believed to be about 12,00 Rohingyas where about 500 fared-dead.

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